Advanced

Array

Methods

Objectives

  • Use forEach to iterate through arrays

  • Use map to transform arrays into new ones 

  • Filter arrays into arrays of different lengths

  • Use some and every to return booleans from callbacks

  • Use reduce to accumulate values and transform arrays into other data types

Why do I need to know this?

  • Foundation for functional programming

  • Reenforcement of more challenging JavaScript concepts

  • Foundation for declarative programming

  • Used everywhere in modern libraries and frameworks

  • Write cleaner and more concise code

forEach

forEach

  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback function on each value in the array
  • returns `undefined`

forEach ALWAYS returns undefined

method

array

callback function

each value in the array

each index in the array

the entire array

anatomy of forEach

  • We can call the parameters to the callback whatever we want!
  • We do not always need all three parameters, use whichever ones you need, just remember the order is important!

                            function(                                ){

 

}

              .forEach(

 

     );

value, index, array

[1,2,3]

The callback function will be executed 3 times since there are 3 values in the array

An example

var arr = [1,2,3];

arr.forEach(function(value, index, array){
    console.log(value);
});

// 1
// 2
// 3
// undefined

How does it work?

function forEach(array, callback){
    for(var i = 0; i < array.length; i++){
        callback(array[i], i, array);
    }
}
  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback function on each value in the array
  • returns `undefined`

Using forEach in a function

function halfValues(arr){
    var newArr = [];
    arr.forEach(function(val){
        newArr.push(val / 2);
    });
    return newArr;
}

halfValues([2,4,6]); // [1,2,3]

Remember - forEach always returns undefined!

YOUR

TURN

map

map

  • Creates a new array
  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback function for each value in the array
  • Adds the result of that callback function to the new array
  • Returns the new array

map ALWAYS returns a new array of the SAME length

An example

var arr = [1,2,3];

arr.map(function(value, index, array){
    return value * 2;
});

// [2,4,6]

How does it work?

function map(array, callback){
    var newArr = [];
    for(var i = 0; i < array.length; i++){
        newArr.push(callback(array[i], i, array));
    }
    return newArr;
}
  • Creates a new array
  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback function for each value in the array
  • Pushes result of the callback function to the new array
  • Returns the new array

Using map in a function

function tripleValues(arr){
    return arr.map(function(value){
        return value * 3;
    });
}

tripleValues([1,2,3]); // [3,6,9]
function onlyFirstName(arr){
    return arr.map(function(val){
        return val.first;
    });
}

onlyFirstName([{first: 'Tim', last:'Garcia'}, {first:'Matt', last: 'Lane'}]); 

// ['Tim', 'Matt]

YOUR

TURN

filter

filter

  • Creates a new array
  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback function on each value in the array
  • If the callback function returns true, that value will be added to the new array
  • If the callback function returns false, that value will be ignored from the new array

The result of the callback will ALWAYS be a boolean

An example

var arr = [1,2,3];

arr.filter(function(value, index, array){
    // no need for an if statement
    // just return an expression 
    // that evaluates to true or false!
    return value > 2;
});

// [3]

Another example

var instructors = [{name: "Elie"},
                   {name: "Tim"},
                   {name: "Matt"},
                   {name: "Colt"}
                  ];
instructors.filter(function(value, index, array){
    return value.name.length > 3;
});

// [{name: "Elie"},{name: "Matt"},{name: "Colt"}];

How does it work?

function filter(array, callback){
    var newArr = [];
    for(var i = 0; i < array.length; i++){
        if(callback(array[i], i, array)){
            newArr.push(array[i]);
        }
    }
    return newArr;
}
  • Creates a new array
  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback function on each value in the array
  • If the callback function returns true, that value will be added to the new array
  • If the callback function returns false, that value will be ignored from the new array

Using filter in a function

function onlyFourLetterNames(arr){
    return arr.filter(function(value){
        return value.length === 4;
    });
}

onlyFourLetterNames(['Rusty', 'Matt', 'Moxie', 'Colt']); // ['Matt', 'Colt']
function divisibleByThree(arr){
    return arr.filter(function(value){
        return value % 3 === 0;
    });
}

divisibleByThree([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]); // [3,6,9]

YOUR

TURN

some

some

  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback on each value in the array
  • If the callback returns true for at least one single value, return true
  • Otherwise, return false

The result of the callback will ALWAYS be a boolean

An example

var arr = [1,2,3];

arr.some(function(value, index, array){
    return value < 2;
});

// true

var arr = [1,2,3];

arr.some(function(value, index, array){
    return value > 4;
});

// false

How does it work?

function some(array, callback){
    for(var i = 0; i < array.length; i++){
        if(callback(array[i], i, array)){
            return true;
        }
    }
    return false;
}
  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback on each value in the array
  • If the callback returns true for at least one single value, return true
  • Otherwise, return false

Using some in a function

function hasEvenNumber(arr){
    return arr.some(function(value){
        return value % 2 === 0;
    });
}

hasEvenNumber([1,2,3,4]); // true
hasEvenNumber([1,3,5]); // false
function hasComma(str){
    return str.split('').some(function(value){
        return value === ',';
    });
}

hasComma('This is wonderful'); // false
hasComma('This, is wonderful'); // true

every

every

  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback on each value in the array
  • If the callback returns false for any single value, return false
  • Otherwise, return true

The result of the callback will ALWAYS be a boolean

An example

var arr = [-1,-2,-3];

arr.every(function(value, index, array){
    return value < 0;
});

// true
var arr = [1,2,3];

arr.every(function(value, index, array){
    return value > 2;
});

// false

How does it work?

function every(array, callback){
    for(var i = 0; i < array.length; i++){
        if(callback(array[i], i, array) === false){
            return false;
        }
    }
    return true;
}
  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback on each value in the array
  • If the callback returns false for any single value, return false
  • Otherwise, return true

Using every in a function

function allLowerCase(str){
    return str.split('').every(function(value){
        return value === value.toLowerCase();
    });
}

allLowerCase('this is really nice'); // true
allLowerCase('this is Really nice'); // false
function allArrays(arr){
    return arr.every(Array.isArray);
}

allArrays([[1], [2], [3,4]]); // true
allArrays([[1], [2], {}]); // false

YOUR

TURN

reduce

reduce

Whatever is returned from the callback function, becomes the new value of the accumulator!

  • Accepts a callback function and an optional second parameter
  • Iterates through an array
  • Runs a callback on each value in the array
  • The first parameter to the callback is either the first value in the array or the optional second parameter
  • The first parameter to the callback is often called "accumulator"
  • The returned value from the callback becomes the new value of accumulator

method

array

callback function

first value in array or optional second parameter

each index in the array

the entire array

anatomy of reduce

                         function(                                                            ){  

 

 

 

}

accumulator,

[1,2,3]

Whatever is returned inside here, will be the value of accumulator in the next iteration.

                 .reduce(  

 

 

 

         , optional second parameter)

second value in array or first if optional second parameter is passed

nextValue,

index,

array

Let's break it down

var arr = [1,2,3,4,5];

arr.reduce(function(accumulator, nextValue){
    return accumulator + nextValue;
});
accumulator nextValue returned value
1 2 3
3 3 6
6 4 10
10 5 15 

Adding a second parameter

var arr = [1,2,3,4,5];

arr.reduce(function(accumulator, nextValue){
    return accumulator + nextValue;
},10);
accumulator nextValue returned value
10 1 11
11 2 13
13 3 16
16 4 20
20 5 25

How about strings?

var names = ['Tim', 'Matt', 'Colt', 'Elie'];

names.reduce(function(accumulator, nextValue){
    return accumulator += ' ' + nextValue;
},'The instructors are');
'The instructors are Tim' 'Matt' 'The instructors are Tim Matt'
accumulator nextValue returned value
'The instructors are' 'Tim' 'The instructors are Tim'
'The instructors are Tim Matt' 'Colt' 'The instructors are Tim Matt Colt'
'The instructors are Tim Matt Colt' 'Elie 'The instructors are Tim Matt Colt Elie'

How about objects?

var arr = [5,4,1,4,5];

arr.reduce(function(accumulator, nextValue){
    if(nextValue in accumulator){
        accumulator[nextValue]++;
    } else {
        accumulator[nextValue] = 1;
    }
    return accumulator;
},{});
accumulator nextValue returned value
{} 5 {5:1}
{5:1} 4 {5:1, 4:1}
{5:1, 4:1} 1 {5:1, 4:1, 1:1}
{5:1, 4:1, 1:1} 4 {5:1, 4:2, 1:1}
{5:1, 4:2, 1:1} 5 {5:2, 4:2, 1:1}

Using reduce in a function

function sumOddNumbers(arr){
    return arr.reduce(function(accumulator,nextValue){
        if(nextValue % 2 !== 0){
            accumulator += nextValue;
        }
        return accumulator;
    },0);
}

sumOddNumbers([1,2,3,4,5]); // 9
function createFullName(arr){
    return arr.reduce(function(accumulator, nextValue){
        accumulator.push(nextValue.first + " " + nextValue.last);
        return accumulator;
    }, []);
}

createFullName([{first:"Colt", last:"Steele"}, {first:"Matt", last:"Lane"}]);

// ["Colt Steele", "Matt Lane"]

YOUR

TURN

Recap

  • forEach iterates over an array, runs a callback on each value and returns undefined
  • map creates a new array, runs a callback on each value and pushes the result of each callback in the new array
  • filter creates a new array, runs a callback on each value and if the result of the callback returns true, that value is added to the new array
  • some iterates through an array and runs a callback on each value, if the callback for at least one value returns true, some returns true, otherwise false
  • every iterates through an array and runs a callback on each value, if the callback at any time returns false, every returns false
  • reduce returns an accumulated value which is determined by the result of what is returned to each callback

Advanced JavaScript Array Methods

By Elie Schoppik

Advanced JavaScript Array Methods

Advanced JavaScript Array Methods

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